srebrenica_man- 72758 - 14.08.2012 : Ratko Obrenovic Detroit, USA - (1)
Ethnic Conflicts in Civil War in Bosnia - Political manipulation with term of Genocide (1)Part II (Practical work) Case Study: Srebrenica
srebrenica_man- 72759 - 14.08.2012 : Ratko Obrenovic Detroit, USA - (0)
Ethnic Conflicts in Civil War in Bosnia -Political manipulation with term of Genocide (2)25. Normal War Engagement The conditions that were set by UN SC allowed Muslim forces in Srebrenica enclave to do virtually anything. Under the Muslim Command Unit of 8th Operative Group, 28th Division, consisting of 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, etc., launched the attacks on Serbs villages that had been already attacked during 1992 and 1993. Most of the attacks were terroristic action by a small group of soldiers. More than 500 Serbs were killed by the attack form "Safe Area", and the cruelty of killings were the same as before . Dutch battalion later described this attack as follows. "Operations were relatively unpredictable because the units were almost without training and rather non-disciplined. Muslim forces made systematic assaults from the enclave, and afterwards they used to withdrew to the territory under the protection of UN." It is needless to say UNPROFOR as well as civilians were used as human shields. Military supplies were sufficient in "Safe Area," so that there were almost no problem to continue the offensive. The huge documents which Muslim forces left in Srebrenica delineate each delivery of ammunition, military uniforms, boots, computer equipment, office equipment, cigarettes, etc. Furthermore, even money amounting to 308,850 DEM were transferred to Naser Oric, according to the document from Commander Colonel Avdo Palic (dated Feb 14, 1995). More surprisingly, Muslim forces used even helicopters between Headquarters and Srebrenica or Zepa . A series of documents which were exchanged with Headquarters recorded the helicopter accident of 7 May 1995 at Igrisnik between Zepa and Srebrenica, informing 11 deaths and 9 injuries. Taking an advantage of virtually free traffic, US secretly had communication equipment flown to Tuzla, which would enable Muslim forces to coordinate offensive operations between larger units . Thanks to those conditions of "Safe Area", Muslim forces regained the power enough to attack Bosnian Serbs' vital supply route, being well coordinated with other units. Even one month before the fall of Srebrenica, Muslim forces in "Safe Area" were planning to break the road communication around Vlasenica in cooperation with the units of 2nd corps in Sarajevo. Meanwhile, operation of Republika Srpska forces of Bosnian Serbs were generally directed to keep the status quo and to protect Bosnian Serbs population in Srebrenica area from the attacks of Muslim forces in the enclave, or "Safe Area" . As all Muslim enclaves or "Safe Area" including Srebrenica were less important for Serbs, territory wise, Republika Srpska forces did not care very much about the enclaves as long as Muslim forces refrained from attacking Serbs' village and the Serbs' vital supply route. Moreover, Bosnian Serb forces did not have enough soldiers to take over Srebrenica although they had more heavy weapons, which would become ineffective in the mountainous landscape of Srebrenica. Therefore, even when Muslim forces of Srebrenica faced food crisis in spring 1993, the two Bosnian Serb political leaders, Karadzic and Milosevic, were adamant that there was no intention to take Srebrenica. Although Mladic had not been in good terms with Karadzic in those day by his quasi- coup d'etat against Karadzic, he also answered to Kareeman's question on July 21, 1995, after the fall of Srebrenica, that he would not have thought about attacking the enclaves if Muslim soldiers in "Safe Area," such as Srebrenica, Gorazde, and Zepa had been completely disarmed . In addition, on the fall of Srebrenica, Mladic showed his indifference to the territory itself by asking representatives of Muslim refugees and civilians in Srebrenica whether they would like to stay in Srebrenica or go to Muslim territories or foreign countries. What Bosnian Serb forces wanted from Muslim forces was to stop the assaults against Serbian civilians and their vital supply route. 26. Fall of Srebrenica - Chaotic Muslim Soldiers When Srebrenica began to fall into the hands of Serbs from July 6, 1995, Muslim forces in Srebrenica were hysterical, being in confusion and chaos. Having seen Dutch Battalion of UNPROFOR withdrawing, Muslim forces together with three citizens shot a blue helmet, Sergeant Van Renseen, to death on July 8. On the same day, some Muslim soldiers threw grenade at Dutch Battalion, demanding the Dutch to go towards Bosnian Serb forces and fight. On July 9, Muslim soldiers who did not allow Dutch to withdraw held another Dutch battalion for overnight . On July 10, Muslim troops threatened a Dutch captain with anti-tank weapons not to move although the Dutch captain wanted to move in order to target Bosnian Serb forces more directly . On July 11, Dutch solders saw mutual fighting in various places between Muslim soldiers who wanted to surrender and Muslim soldiers who wanted to continue to fight . On July 12, several Dutch soldiers saw a man hang himself in factory complex opposite of the Dutch base in Potocari. Negotiation With Muslim Civilians & Refugees in Srebrenica Enclave At the fall of Srebrenica, Mladic negotiated with Karremans, Dutch commander, and three representatives of Muslim civilians and refugees three times. Based on the decision of the three representatives including a woman, Mladic organized the evacuation of people, and asked for the help of the three representatives to carry out the evacuation smoothly. What he repeatedly told them was to ask soldiers to give up weapons within 24 hours. He said that Muslim soldiers, including soldiers not in uniform and even war criminals, would be treated according to the Geneva Convention if they hand over their weapons. Muslim Soldiers Who Did Not Surrender The conclusion of this negotiation must have been a nightmare for Muslim forces that were in confusion. Most of the soldiers were occupied with the worst scenario in which Bosnian Serb forces would execute all men. Later, some of the Muslim soldiers who had fled admitted, in various magazines, that the reason they had decided to flee was due to this worst scenario. Besides, Muslim hard liners' pressure was mounting so high that soldiers that had decided to surrender had to expect some assaults from their own fellows . At the night of July 10, the Muslim soldiers who had decided not to surrender started fleeing. According to Dutch Battalion, a group of some 300 soldiers of Muslim forces disappeared in moving toward the west. On the night of July 11-12, between 10,000 and 15,000 men, who had converged on the area of Jaglici and Susnjari, went in the forests to reach Tuzla or Kladanj. Mehrudin Mesanovic said in the local magazine of Sarajevo that brigades gathered in Buljim on July 11 started into woods by platoon and platoon. Although no confirmed figures are available, it is estimated that 10,000-15,000 Muslim soldiers had left Srebrenica through woods according to the Report of the Secretary-General and other accounts . Muslim Who Surrendered Approximately 25,000 out of 40,000 Muslims decided to surrender and gathered in Potocari. According to Dutch battalion, the majority of people were women, children, and the elderly, and the military capable men accounted for only 2% to 3%. Bosnian Serb forces separated them into a group of women, children, and the elderly and a group of military capable men. The purpose of this separation was two-fold: to catch Muslim soldiers as many as possible as war prisoners in order to exchange them for Serbs imprisoned by Muslim Army particularly in Sarajevo, and to screen out Muslims who had committed hideous crimes against Serbian citizens particularly in 1992 and 1993. Being free from allegation of military engagement, a group of women, children, and the elderly were directly transferred to Kladanj, a Muslim territory. On the other hand, a group of men, amounting to about 500 to 750 (or 2%-3% of 25,000), were transferred to Bratunac, where they were screened for the check of war crimes, and were grouped into three; (1) a group of men who did not have any criminal records, (2) a group of men who were required to go through farther check for war crimes, (3) a group of men who were determined to be war criminals. As for (1), Bosnian Serb forces considered the men of this group as civilians but not as prisoners of war. Thus, they were transferred from Bratunac to Kladanj, a Muslim territory, on July 14, immediately after the criminal screening. The fact that the men in this group did not become the targets for the exchange of prisoners was noteworthy because the men in this group might have fought as soldiers. In fact, a Muslim man that had been released as a civilian on this time in Bratunac disappointed Bosnian Serb forces later when he was caught as a prisoner of war on the front line near Sarajevo . The number of Muslim men in this group is estimated to be around 500 because six buses and four trucks are said to be used to transport them . The Muslim men in the remaining two groups became prisoners of war, according to their war activities. As for (2), the group was transferred from the prison of Bratunac to the prison of Batkovic. As for (3), the group was sent from the prison of Bratunac to the prison of Zvornik. The number of Muslim men in these two groups is estimated to be less than 250 in total because the number of men in all three groups totaled 500 to 750, and the group (1) consisted of approximately 500 men. When ICRC visited all three prisons in Bratunac, Batkovic and Zvornik afterwards , it registered 164 persons from Srebrenica at the prison of Batkovic on July 26, 1995 , and noted 193 persons from Srebrenica in total by November 1995 . Later, the majority of the Muslim war prisoners in these groups seems to have been exchanged for the Serbian war prisoners via ICRC. One of the example is Ibran Mustafic, a founder of the ruling Muslim party (SDA) in Srebrenica and Srebrenica representative to Muslim Parliament . He was exchanged for a Serb imprisoned by Muslim Army after having spent nine months in the prison in Batkovic although Mustafic was on the list of war criminals of Bosnian Serbs side . Unfortunately, the number of the persons who were exchanged from the group (2) and (3) is unknown due to the confidentiality of ICRC documents. Yet, taking into consideration the fact that about 500 out of 750 men gathering in Potocari were transferred to Kladanj unconditionally, the remaining 250 must have been very precious war prisoners for Bosnian Serb forces. Other than the above three groups, there was a group of 88 wounded persons . As for the evacuation of this group, ICRC said that 65 of them were transferred to Muslim territories on July 17 and 18 . Although 23 remained, ICRC noted their identities to trace them as war prisoners afterwards . As ICRC's check of identities would secure the lives of the noted persons, almost all wounded persons are considered to be exchanged for Serbian war prisoners later. Other than ICRC report, there were two accounts that contradict each other: the statement of Medicina Sans Frontiers and the statement of Dutch battalions . Taking into consideration that the statement of Medicina Sans Frontiers was also inconsistent with ICRC report and that the statement was given by the locals that Medicina Sans Frontiers employed from the enclave, their statement should not be taken seriously. 27. Alleged Massacre - Fleeing Muslim Soldiers It is said that the dreadful massacre of Muslims occurred at the fall of Srebrenica. Particularly, Muslim soldiers who decided to flee through woods instead of surrendering are said to be executed by Bosnian Serb forces as if they had been hunting rabbits. However, two important facts were ignored in this understanding: those soldiers were carrying weapons in spite of Mladic's repeated warning, and there were ferocious fighting between those Muslim soldiers and Bosnian Serb soldiers. As all Muslim soldiers headed for Muslim territories, Tuzla or Kladanj, through woods, they had to cross roads that cut off the woods vertically from north to south in some points, such as Buljim, Kamenica, Kravica, Pobudje, Nova Kasava, Bajkovica, Crni Vrh, and the line from Konjevic Polje to Milici . The combats were very intense in these places. According to a Muslim survivor, Bosnian Serb forces were waiting along the path which Muslim soldiers had to cross, and did not dare to walk into the woods . As Bosnian Serb forces were carrying anti-aircraft weapons, what they had to do was just to wait and shoot at massive Muslim soldiers coming out of the woods if they do not obey the warning of surrender . Yet, Bosnian Serb forces lost the fight at several places, such as Baljkovica, Krizevac, etc. and suffered the loss of 300 - 500 soldiers because Bosnian Serb soldiers, being inferior in number , could not fight with hundreds or thousands of Muslim soldiers that crossed roads at a time even by heavy artillery. Among the loss of Bosnian Serb forces, there were quite a few elite soldiers, and local newspapers of Serbia often carried sad stories of those soldiers together with their photos in those days . Taking into consideration the huge loss of Bosnian Serb forces under the favorable conditions for them , it can be estimated that Muslim forces must have suffered the loss of nearly 2,000 soldiers from military perspectives. However, it must be noted that this combat might look mass killings to the eye of frightened Muslim soldiers although they carried weapons and shot at Bosnian Serb soldiers randamly . There are some accounts that said that no combats occurred virtually . The reason for these accounts was that the women in the buses heading for Kladanj did not see fighting . However, Mladic told General Smith, on July 19, that he had opened the corridor towards Tuzla for Muslim soldiers who had left the enclave around July 10 and 11. Thus, Bosnian Serb forces did not put up serious opposition . Under these conditions, about 6,000 soldiers were able to reach Zenica through woods, according to UNHCR's announce . As Halilovic confirmed proudly in his book, hence, the 28th Division of Muslim Army in Srebrenica had been reorganized, consisting of 6,000 soldiers that had broke the line of Bosnian Serb forces . Therefore, during the daytime of July 12 and 13, when all buses passed by, there had not been serious combats yet. Otherwise, the buses could not have passed. However, during nights, when Muslim soldiers were moving, there were combats. Most of the local pathways became war sites as well as some places on the main roads that the buses took. Therefore, there must have been shooting sounds, which Dutch soldiers heard particularly during nights, and there must have been dead bodies scattered around the roads as the women in the buses saw during daytime. Accordingly, what the women in the buses said was rational, and it was the evidence of the combats during nights rather than the evidence of the absence of the combats. In addition to the death tolls in the combat, there were a number of Muslim soldiers who lost physical power to continue to flee. Dr. Ilijas Pilav, who succeeded this journey, said that he noticed many drowned men when he crossed the Jadar River . He added that there were mutual shootings because of illusions resulted from exhaustion . Another person said that there must have been lots of people who lost lives after losing sense of directions and going into a circle walk . After the combats, a huge number of dead bodies were scattered around. To walk for almost 20 days in the area which might be full of mines without any food and water under the fear of being shot from any directions was such a trauma that Muslim soldiers sometimes mixed reality with illusions . Having looked at dead bodies under the psychological disturbance, some Muslim soldiers could believe what they imagined. Therefore, it is necessary to confirm witness's accounts by site-inspection. Otherwise, enormously hideous stories, such as 'liver-eating story shown in the review of the indictment against Karadzic and Mladzic, would drive the general psychology to a 'witch-hunting' frenzy. Muslims that were transferred by bus As for the group of women, children, and the elderly, they were transferred to Kladanj, a Muslim territory, by buses on July 12 and 13. According to Muslim women that were transferred from Srebrenica by bus, the Serb bus drivers assured that they would protect the passengers and that nobody would touch them. In fact, there are almost no names of women from Srebrenica in the missing list of ICRC. As for the group of men who were transferred to Kladanj, several persons said that they were transferred to Karakaj in Bosnian Serbs' territory instead of Kladanj in Muslims' territory although others appeared to be transferred directly to Kladanj without troubles. According the Karakaj-massacre witnesses, men were crammed into a school complex and its adjacent sports hall in Karakaj and thousands of men were executed there. However, according to the author's site inspection, there was only one school in Karakaj, which was supposed to accommodate Muslim men. However, it was too small to accommodate them and it did not have any sports halls. Moreover, there were school records showing the presence of students day by day in July and in August. In addition, when the author met two Muslim women that had been living in Mali Zvornik (in Serbia), only about 1 km away from the school across the Drina River, they said that they didn't hear any shooting sounds from 13 July afterwards although they lived within the range that the sounds could reach. They just added that they saw a long column of the buses, carrying many Muslims. Judging from this site-inspection, and considering that Mevludin Oric, one of the witnesses who allegedly saw massacre there, was a nephew of Naser Oric, Commander of Muslim forces in Srebrenica, the story of massacre in Karakaj is very skeptical. Another dubious story is regarding the whereabouts of one of the most important Muslim citizens for Bosnian Serb forces. Nesib Mandzic, a citizen that negotiated with Mladzic as a representative of refugees together with two other civilians, is said to be executed by Bosnian Serb forces and listed as a person who disappeared on July 13. However, he signed the paper with the other representatives to confirm the safe completion of the evacuation on July 16, three days after the alleged disappearance. It can be considered that he might be killed later by Muslim soldiers partly because he was one of the persons that Muslim Army must have hated due to the negotiation with Mladzic and partly because he was a refugee but not a citizen of Srebrenica town. Summary Execution for Personal Revenge Considering that a number of Serbs were killed by Muslim neighbors in a very cruel way in 1992 and 1993, there must have been summary executions for the purpose of personal revenge. According to De Groene Amsterdammer dated March 13, 1996, Serbs were so tense to select war criminals with the lists and photos in their hands when they separated military capable men from women and others. Therefore, very selective executions could happen. Regarding the spots where executions took place, most cases must have been limited to Potocari because a particular individual would rarely see the right person among 15,000 fleeing Muslim soldiers in places other than Potocari. Moreover, any person that became insane with revenge would usually kill his target on the spot, i.e. Potocari, rather than waiting for the appropriate time and place. Direct information, such as Dutch soldiers, was one of the examples of summary executions for personal revenge. For instance, according to a Dutch soldier, a Muslim was pulled out of a crowd of refugees and shot in Potocari on July 13. Another Dutch soldier saw 10 Muslim soldiers led by Bosnian Serb soldiers on July 12, and 9 dead bodies were found around the area where they were seen last in Potocari. Yet, it must be noted that just shooting sounds or collecting people in one spot does not necessarily mean killings as shooting sound could be considered to be a threat or a warning and people could be collected in a place for screening for war crimes. The existence of Mladzic in Potocari can be considered to discourage Serbs to take their wild revenge, taking into consideration the vengeful mind of the relatives of Serbian victims that were massacred in 1992 and 1993. Several old Serbs whom the author met in January of 1998 said that they personally saw how merciless Mladzic whacked Serbs who tried to rob empty houses. It was said that Mladzic was too harsh and strict in discipline to overlook any unlawful behaviors of his soldiers. Although these were the statements of Serbs, it must be remembered that the existence of Mladzic does not necessarily mean the systematic killings and could be the deterrence to revengeful killings. Of course, however, Mladzic, who failed to stop killings perfectly, would be responsible as a superior, and those Serbs who directly committed the crimes should be punished accordingly. Summary Execution of Muslim Soldiers Who Were Captured in Fleeing through Woods It is not difficult to distinguish Muslim soldiers that were executed after being captured from Muslim soldiers that were killed in combat. The location of mass graves holds the key. The two of the three exhumation sites that author visited on May 16 in 1996 showed good examples: Cancari and Glodjansko brdo. Both of them are located in the front line area in Kamenica. Cancari is the small village on the way from Srebrenica toward the north-east, the direction of Muslim territories. The mass grave in Cancari was situated along the two local roads. Behind the mass grave, six families were living at the time of exhumation. Bones were mixed up, and the locations of the bones were not natural. Therefore, ICTY, who was working on this mass grave, presumed that they were moved from somewhere to here in order to hide. However, the circumstances were not so convincing. Firstly, the site was so close to local roads that it was not an appropriate place to hide something. Secondly, if a truck picks up dead bodies who were killed in combats for clean-up, the locations of bones were disarranged anyway. Lastly, according to a ICTY officer, this site was shown by one of the US satellite photos, which could be any graves not necessarily for summarily executed persons. Mass graves does not always mean mass execution. A village man in Cancari area began to grumble to the author about his corns, saying that his corn field was stamped so hard by massive Muslims during nights that he could not harvest corn. According to him, the combats had been so ferocious that bodies of soldiers killed in the combats had scattered around the area, and the whole area had smelled terribly as it had been more than 30 degrees. As domestic animals had eaten some of internal organs of dead human bodies, villagers had to kill all of their domestic animals. Under these circumstances, someone had to pick up the bodies to put into the ground for the sake of hygiene. On the other hand, the mass grave in Glodjansko brdo was located deep in forests. It was the site where someone wanted to hide bodies. This mass grave had been once dug in 1993 by Bosnian Serbs because it had contained victims of Serbian civilians killed in 1993. However, the exhumation work had been suspended due to the fierce combats. Most of local newspapers had carried the exhumation as top stories in those days. Comparing the two sites, it can be concluded that the mass grave in a open space along a road in combat areas were created for hygiene reasons for numerous soldiers killed in the combats. On the other hand, mass graves deep in forests are considered to be the ones which criminals wanted to hide. The exhumation site of ICTY is considered to be one of the examples of mass graves created for hygiene reasons.
srebrenica_man- 72760 - 14.08.2012 : Ratko Obrenovic Detroit, USA - (0)
Ethnic Conflicts in Civil War in Bosnia -Political manipulation with term of Genocide (3)Missing List It is said that as many as 6,000 - 8,000 Muslim men were executed by Bosnian Serb forces. However, this figure is evidently inflated. There are several factors that expand the actual figure. First factor is the high ratio of Muslim women to military capable men in a family. In general, the average number of women are about 3 or 4, the grandmother, the mother, the wife, and a sister in a Muslim family, usually consisting of more than 8 members. On the other hand, the number of military capable men is 1 or 2, the father if he is young enough and a brother if he is old enough. Therefore, if one of the military capable men becomes missing, three women anxious about the fate of their beloved one would report to ICRC individually as a missing person. The name could be slightly changed because a nickname is sometimes more popular than the real name. Thus, the number of missing persons would become two-fold. When the author visited Muslim women that were living in Sarajevo as refugees from Srebrenica, more than ten women came in order to ask the author to find the whereabouts of the two men. Another factor is the desperate efforts of Muslim women from Srebrenica to support their lives. Having arrived in Kladanj and Tuzla either by the bus evacuation at the fall of Srebrenica or by some other means before the fall of Srebrenica, Muslim women obtained Identity Card of a citizen of Kladanj or Tuzla. However, as they moved mostly to Sarajevo, they got another Identity Card of Sarajevo. Thus, they are able to secure aid in Kladanj / Tuzla as well as aid in Sarajevo. One of the Muslim women that the author met in Sarajevo whispered secretly, saying that she had two Identity Cards to receive the aid twice. Next factor is the intention of Muslim government to manipulate the election in Srebrenica. According to the document compiled by the local Serbs in Srebrenica, about 3,500 Muslim names registered as voters in 1997 had not been the persons who used to live in Srebrenica. All 3,500 names that the author saw in their letter of complaint to OSCE were female names. False registration gave the election victory of Srebrenica to Muslim government, and gave aid to women registered falsely. All three factors also become the reasons why so many Muslim women said that their beloved ones had been killed in Srebrenica. Moreover, there were a number of names without date of birth in the missing list. These names amount as much as about 3,381 out of 6,610 who became missing at the fall of Srebrenica. Since it is strange that close relative did not know the birth date of their beloved in registering , there must be some factor which tried to manipulate the figure of the victims. Another factor is efforts of Muslim soldiers to conceal their identity in order to avoid the war criminal charge from Bosnian Serb forces. They gave the false identifies to international organizations when they wanted to get out of Srebrenica, and they gave their real name when they arrived at a Muslim territory. Thus, false identities remained in the missing list. In Srebrenica, the author noticed that some of the names on grave stones were identical with the names in the missing list. Probably, they used the names of their dead friends or relatives. According to Report of the Secretary-General Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1019 (1995) on Violations of International Humanitarian Law in the Areas of Srebrenica, Zepa, Banja Luka and Sanski Most (27 November 1995), out of the first tracing requests from families, which amounted to 10,000, 2,000 were found duplicative, and 5,000 were found to be persons who had left the enclave before the fall of Srebrenica. Thus, the remaining requests amounts to approximately 3,000, and ICRC recently listed 3,290 as persons who became missing on the fall of Srebrenica. However, the author found that 180 tracing requests in the ICRC missing list were also for the persons who had left the enclave before the fall of Srebrenica. Consequently , the number of tracing requests results in 3,110 missing persons. Moreover, almost 1000 out of the 3,110 tracing requests were found to be for the persons who had been dead before the fall of Srebrenica or for the persons who had left the enclave earlier, according to the investigation of the document which Muslim forces left in Srebrenica. It should be noted that this document is 45,000 pages long and that only the Commission of Legal Experts has checked less than forty percent of the document to Republika Srpska. Thus, more persons will be eliminated from the remaining 2,110 tracing requests. If the number of invalid tracing requests is found at this rate by the further check of the document, the number of the valid tracing requests is expected to be 2,000 - 2,500 at most eventually. Out of this number, roughly 1,800 Muslim soldiers are estimated to be killed during combats in fleeing, judging from military perspectives, and probably another 100 persons had died of physical conditions while fleeing. In addition, persons who were given asylum in Yugoslavia and other countries and persons who came back alive much later either after hiding themselves for a long time or after being exchanged as prisoners of war must be deleted from the tracing requests. Moreover, Muslim government immediately transferred about 6,000 soldier who arrived at Zenica and Tuzla to another front line in Bosnia without giving any access to their families . Their families of these 6,000 would request ICRC to trace them because the families did not know that their beloved ones had arrived. Thus, a certain number of soldiers among those 6,000 must be deleted from the names of persons who became missing in Srebrenica. As a consequence, the remaining figure in the missing list would be the number of Muslim soldiers who were executed by Bosnian Serb forces for personal revenge or for simple ignorance of the international law. It would probably stand less than 100. Erdemovic Although Erdemovic (a Croat) appeared to be the only substantial evidence for the alleged systematic ethnic cleansing of Bosnian Serb forces, it has not been well-known that Yugoslav government submitted him to ICTY after it had diagnosed him as being mentally sick. When he confessed in Yugoslavia that he executed more than 70 Muslims by ABC broadcast in May 1996, Yugoslav police immediately arrested him in order to investigate. However, as his statement and behavior had many contradictions, the doctors diagnosed him as mental disease. It should be also noted that he used to fight as a member of Muslim forces, then as a member of Croatian forces, and finally as Bosnian Serb forces during the war . This inconsistency of his military history raises the question of the adequacy to stand as a witness for mass execution. Consequence of Alleged Srebrenica Massacre and Collective Responsibility of Serbs Reappearance of Muslim War Criminals in 1998 In 1997, the local election was held in Srebrenica under the supervision of OSCE, and Muslims won the election. According to the document compiled by the local Serbs in Srebrenica, however, about 3500 Muslim names registered as voters were not the persons who used to live in Srebrenica. Although the local Serbs filed the complaint, OSCE ignored. As a result, the local Serbs decided not to recognize the legitimacy of the Assembly. Meanwhile, some newly elected Muslim assemblymen came to Srebrenica in 1998 in order to attend the assembly under the heavy protection of SFOR. However, local Serbs immediately recognized one of the so-called elected Muslims by face as a criminal that killed two women and a handicapped man in a wheelchair in Loznica village in 1992. When the author visited Srebrenica, one of local Serbs said to himself that he would not be able to live in Srebrenica if the international society would bring back those criminals. The deputy chief of the local Bosnian Serb police, who had to cooperate with SFOR to protect the war criminal, said to the author's interpreter in a despair that his job was to arrest criminals and to protect general people. He added impassively that he might quit the job. Yet, there are almost no jobs in Srebrenica. In Tuzla, a Muslim territory, there are troubles between Muslims who once escaped to Germany from Tuzla during the war and Muslims who started to live in Tuzla after the war. According to UNHCR, the current Muslim residents do not allow their fellow returnees to come back to Tuzla. This conflict may result from the fall of Srebrenica. When Srebrenica fell in July 1995, about 6,000 of the most savage segment of Bosnian Army in Srebrenica took the advantage of the corridor that Mladzic opened, and arrived at Tuzla . According to local media in those days, new comers from Srebrenica were reported to kill and beat up the original residents in order to take their houses. As they are still free to do anything now, they would do anything in order to refuse their fellow Muslim returnees from Germany. In 1998, it is said that Naser Oric is now in Kosovo as a mercenary. As he used to be a policeman in Belgrade, several former colleagues recognized him. In addition, a Kosovo Albanian who was arrested as a fighter of UCK, Kosovo Liberation Army, confessed that Naser Oric was in Kosovo together with about 50 Muslim soldiers from Srebrenica. Unlike international conflicts, civil war often give the opportunities that people like bandits will become main players. If you apply black and white picture on a civil war like the war in Bosnia, and overlook the crimes of those bandits, saying that they are victims, the troubles will spill over and you may increase the sorrow of the general public. Quasi-Protectorate of Republika Srpska Aleged massacre of Muslims gave a dreadful blow to Republika Srpska. It lost political and military leaders as ICTY indicted Karadzid and Mladic, and had to start building the entity without the leadership. Taking the advantage of the situation, the international society have filled the space, using SFOR's arrests as a whip on one hand, and financial aid as a carrot on the other. Under the whip and the carrot, the political body began to disintegrate, and Republika Srpska has become a quasi-protectorate of some foreign country. Domestic judicial system was completely ignored, and a war criminal suspect, Drjeca was killed by SFOR by the "secret indictment" of ICTY the under the name of justice although he had hardly resisted unlike SFOR's statement. People has become very vulnerable, having been exposed to the risk of a sudden arrest for the crimes that they did not know. The air in Republika Srpska became stifling among the general citizens of Bosnian Serbs. When the election was held, IPC declined to release the election results for more than two weeks under the name of democracy. The final results of the election that might be manipulated during this period have brought about war criminals as elected assembly men in Srebrenica, and other places. Being afraid of criminals' comeback to the neighborhood, a certain portion of general citizens of Bosnian Serbs have started to look for a life in other countries. The fate of the entity of Bosnian Serbs is dwindling. Collective Responsibility of Serbs Alleged Srebrenica massacre hit Yugoslavia hard as well as Republika Srpska. As uncomfirmed information on the massacre of Muslim soldiers in Srebrenica created a monstrous image of blood-thirsty Serbs as the collective body so firmly, almost everything has been looked at through the filter of this image. Thus, in almost every case, the Serbs are judged as an evil from the beginning. For instance, in media reports on Kosovo, the most frequent words that have been used are "Serbs cannot repeat the massacre of Bosnia" based in the alleged Srebrenica massacre. This imprinting process of the formidable image might push Serbs onto an isolated corner of the world for an unexpectedly long period. Therefore, to clarify the alleged Srebrenica massacre is considered to be one of the most urgent tasks to save Serbs' fate. Important: There is supporting documentations of this Report. In total there is 40 000 pages of Top Secret Muslims documentation's confiscate during the liberation of Srebrenica. Supporting documentation's include:
srebrenica_man- 72762 - 14.08.2012 : Ratko Obrenovic Detroit, USA - (0)
Ethnic Conflicts in Civil War in Bosnia - Political manipulation with term of Genocide (4)The Secretary General heavily criticized some media reports: Calling Bosnia Crisis Overrated, U.N. Chief Focuses on Africa By BARBARA CROSSETTE: "....The international press, he remarked in one of several interviews on his trip, made the battle for Srebrenica sound "like Stalingrad." "There is a kind of dialectical relation between the attention of a great power and the power of the media," he said. "It creates a distortion in our work. What I am trying to do, without great success, is to correct this distortion." Finally there were independent witnesses like UN Dutch troops. This is what they said about "mass killings": BBC Ceefax, 23 July 1995 23:59 BST: NO EVIDENCE OF MASS KILLINGS: DUTCH UN . Dutch UN peacekeepers in Srebrenica when the enclave fell to Bosnian Serb troops, have said they saw the summary execution of ten Bosnian Muslims. But Dutch commander Lt-Col Ton Karremans said he and his men had seen no evidence to corroborate reports from fleeing refugees of mass killings by Bosnian Serb troops. DIE WELT, 25.7.1995 By HELMUT HETZEL:".... Neither Struik nor other Dutch soldiers who were stationed in Srebrenica want to publicly confirm what minister of development- help Jan Pronk and later the minister of defense Joris Voorhoeve claimed: That genocide happened in Srebrenica..." The personal representative of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights was appointed to investigate what happened in Srebrenica and this is what he said: The Electronic Telegraph Monday 24 July 1995: SERB ATROCITIES IN SREBRENICA ARE UNPROVED By Tim Butcher in Tuzla: After five days of interviews the United Nations chief investigator into alleged human rights abuses during the fall of Srebrenica has not found any first-hand witnesses of atrocities... ....The lack of clear evidence facing Hubert Wieland, personal representative of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, proved the near-impossibility of establishing what happened when the Serbs overran the Muslim enclave in eastern Bosnia. "Of course the whole ejection of a civilian population is an enormous abuse of human rights," Mr Wieland said yesterday. "But we have not found anyone who saw with their own eyes an atrocity taking place." ...Mr Wieland travelled to Tuzla, the Bosnian city where almost all of the Srebrenica refugees were taken, with a team of investigators to gather evidence of human rights abuses... He said his team had spoken to scores of Muslims at the main refugee camp at Tuzla airfield and at other collective centres but no first-hand witnesses had been found..... There is only one fact proven during the last two years after the Srebrenica story. The "massacre" in Srebrenica was just another masterpiece of the PR campaign done by Bosnian Muslim led government of Alija Izetbegovic. They did't care about sufferings of the people, death or destruction. For these Islamic fanatics only one goal has no price the creation of an Islamic Bosnia and Hercegovina. The Bosnian Serbs and Croats have realized Izetbegoivc's intentions and they fought against it. It is about time for the International Community to accept the reality. There will be no peace until the Bosnian Muslims who are responsible for lightning up the brutal Bosnia's civil war will stand in front of Hag's War Crimes Tribunal. It is time to get Alija Izetbegovic, Ejup Ganic, Rusmir Mahmutcehajic, Omer Behmen, Haris Silajdzic to stand and face the historical judgment. Their blindness (fanaticism) has created enormous disaster to the Bosnian Muslim people as well as for the Bosnian Serbs and Croats. It is time to pay the price for their religious fundamentalism. Bosnian Muslims who were considered by United Nations officials to be missing after the fall of the Srebrenica enclave have made their way through enemy lines to Bosnian Government territory in Zepa. This is an official message from the Zepa command to their main headquarters in town of Tuzla. It was never made public, although UN represenatives were informed about incoming Bosnian Muslim troops from UN battalion in Zepa. 30. Facsimile of Top secret Bosnian Muslim Army document REPUBLIC OF BOSNA I HERZEGOVINA DEFENCE OF THE REPUBLIC Bosnia and Herzegovina Army 22.07.1995 time: 14:20:00 2 CORPUS TUZLA for brigadier: DUDAKOVICH The members of the 28th Bosnian Muslim Mountain Battalion that came to Zepa on July 16, 1995.
srebrenica_man- 72766 - 14.08.2012 : Ratko Obrenovic Detroit, USA - (0)
Ethnic Conflicts in Civil War in Bosnia - Political manipulation with term of Genocide (5)DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Deliberate killing of civilians. PLACE AND TIME: The village of Jelasci, the commune of Visegrad, 1 August 1992. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: In the night of 2 August Moslem military troops attacked the village of Jelasci and shot the following civilians: 1. Milo Savic, born in 1943, of father Gvozden, 2. Petka Savic, born in 1945 of father Dragomir, 3. Radomir Savic, born in 1949, of father Gvozden, 4. Dragan Susnjar, born in 1928, of father Jovan, 5. Slavka Susnjar, born in 1930, 6. Trivun Jelicic, born in 1929, of father Velizar, 7. Sava Jelicic, born in 1920, 8. Mirjana Jelicic, born 1960, of father Miloje, 9. Dragana Jelicic, 8 years old, 10. Vidoje Jelicic, 11 years old. The victims were killed in their homes or leaving their houses. Each of them had several bullet shots on their bodies. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Ahmed Sejdic, from Visegrad, commander of a Moslem military unit. EVIDENCE: Minutes from the hearing of the witnesses filed with the Committee under numbers 440/94-36 and 440/94-40. NOTE: Supplement to application I-139. Some of the war crimes that are reported to the UN and listed by the case and proof number. All Bosnian Muslim units were from Srebrenica's operational Muslim army group. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Deliberate killing of civilians. PLACE AND TIME: The village of Vlahovici, the commune of Visegrad, 9 June 1992. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: A group of Moslem soldiers killed the following civilians from the village of Vlahovici on 9 June in a field called Krcevina: 1. Dragomir Simsic, born in 1949, of father Momcilo, 2. Perka Simsic, maiden name Gogic, born in 1941, of father Vitomir, and 3. Bozo Simsic, born in 1932, of father Obren. Dragomir and Perka Simsic were killed by Bajic and Sabanovic from fire arms, and Bozo Simsic was both shot and slaughtered by Hurem. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Hamdo Bajic, from Velika Gostilja, the commune of Visegrad, of father Asim and mother Mejrema, 2. Adil Sabanovic, from Mala Gostilja, the commune of Visegrad, born on 27 November 1972 in Visegrad, of father Rifet, 3. Ragib Hurem, called Rapce, from Mala Gostilja, the commune of Visegrad, born on 24 September 1960, of father Ragib and mother Hajra. EVIDENCE: Minutes from the hearing of the witness and an application of the public security station in Visegrad, Ku. 6/93, filed with the Committee under number 440/94-35. NOTE: Supplement to application I-139. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Deliberate killing of civilians. PLACE AND TIME: The village of Donja Lijeska, near Visegrad, 25 October 1992. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: The witness Pecikoza was nearby the house of Milka Zecevic when Moslem soldiers who attacked that Serbian village took the fifty year old Milka out of her house and killed her. The witness was about fifty meters away from them. He recognized Maric, Alija Kustura and Zain Kustura. After the murder they burnt her house, as well as the houses of other Serbs from the village. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Osman Maric, from the village of Babica Potok near Visegrad, 2. Alija Kustura, from the village of Okruglo, near Visegrad, 3. Zain Kustura, from the village of Okruglo, near Visegrad. EVIDENCE: Minutes from the hearing of the witness filed with the Committee under number 440/94-29 DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Deliberate killing of civilians. PLACE AND TIME: The village of Mesici, the commune of Rogatica, 26 June 1992. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: On 26 June 1992, Moslem soldiers attacked the Serbian village of Mesici near Rogatica and in the settlement Hidroelektrana they killed Nedjo Gladanac from Mesici, born on 25 August 1922 in Sudici, of father Ostoja. On his body there were several bullet wounds and several knife stabs in the chest and the neck. The next day when the family was burying Gladanac Moslem soldiers came and disturbed the funeral. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Members of the Moslem Army. 2. Minutes from the hearing of the witnesses filed with the Committee under number 440/94-21. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Deliberate killing of civilians. PLACE AND TIME: The villages of Klisura and Bursici, the commune of Visegrad, 8 August 1992. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: On 8 August 1992 a Moslem military unit attacked the Serbian villages of Klisura and Bursici near Visegrad, in which there were no Serb troops. In front of the house of Marko Kusmuk Moslem soldiers killed his two sons while he was tending sheep nearby: 1. Milorad Kusmuk, born in 1961 and 2. Milos Kusmuk, born in 1965, and burnt the house in which were: 3. Danica Kusmuk, Marko's wife, born in 1931, of father Dusan and 4. Joka Vukasinovic, Marko's aunt, born in 1914 of father Milos. Danica burnt in the house, and Joka managed to escape the fire, but was shortly afterwards killed by Moslem soldiers. The following persons were also killed: 5. Drago Kusmuk, born in 1954, of father Veso and 6. Zoran Kojic, from the neighbouring village of Adrovici, born in 1965, of father Ljubo. On the same day the following persons were killed in the village of Bursici by Moslem soldiers: 7. Bozana Ircagic, born in 1905, and her daughter 8. Stanojka Ircagic, born in 1933, of father Vojin. After that they burnt Kusmuk's house, two stables, a pigsty, a shed, a cottage and a dairy, and left out 105 sheep and 13 cows, altogether to the value of 700,000 DM. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Dzevad Sisic, born in 1961, in the village of Bogdasici, near Visegrad, of father Ismet, 2. Dzevad Muharemovic, from Medjedja near Visegrad, born in 1961, of father called "Pobro". EVIDENCE: Minutes from the hearing of the witness filed with the Committee under number 440/94-20. NOTE: Supplement to application I-116. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Deliberate killing of civilians. PLACE AND TIME: The village of Donja Lijeska near Visegrad, late July 1992. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: In late July 1992, a group of Moslem soldiers headed by Ramiz Nuhanovic, entered the house of Radojka Rajak, born in 1927, of father Milic Bozovic; Nuhanovic killed Radojka from firearms on the threshold of her house. Radojka had several bullet wounds on her body. After the murder, they burnt the house and all auxiliary facilities (a stable for cows, a pigsty, a barn), altogether to the value of 500,000 DM. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Ramiz Nuhanovic, from the village of Tustamedj near Visegrad. EVIDENCE: Minutes from the hearing of the witness filed with the Committee under number 440/94-30. NOTE: Supplement to application I-139. Some of the war crimes that are reported to the UN and listed by the case and proof number. All Bosnian Muslim units were from Srebrenica's operational Muslim army group. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Deliberate killing of arrested persons-POWs. PLACE AND TIME: Srebrenica, September-October 1992. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: After the arrest, Tursumovic cut the witness's chest with a knife, which left a visible scar. After that he was taken to the Srebrenica police for hearing. There they put a pistol into his mouth and Koljevic pulled the trigger, but the bullet was not in the barrel, and only a clicking sound could be heard. Then everybody started beating him, after which they called Dragoljub Kukic for hearing; they hit him against the ground and beat him. Kukic reacted at one point by cursing their Ustashi mother, after which Ahmetovic took a log which was by the stove, and hit Kukic in the chest with it until he died. They threw Kukic's body on a junk yard somewhere near Podravanj. The witness was later beaten with the same log, and Ahmetovic knocked his tooth out. When he was beaten on other occasions they knocked out all his teeth and broke his ribs in 14 places. They put out cigarettes on his legs, which left scars. They urinated into his mouth. They hanged him on the ceiling by tying his legs with a rope hung on a wheel fixed to a strip. As a result of such an inhumane treatment and poor diet, the witness lost 30 kg in 21 days in the prison, and had 62 kg when he left the prison. Naser Oric also participated in the beating of prisoners. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Zulfo Tursumovic, 2. Mirzet Koljevic, head of the police, 3. Kemal Ahmetovic, called "Kemo", 4. "Beli", a guard, 5. Naser Oric, commander of the Moslem army in Srebrenica. EVIDENCE: Minutes from the hearing of the witness filed with the Committee under number 378/94-14. Some of the war crimes that are reported to the UN and listed by the case and proof number. All Bosnian Muslim units were from Srebrenica's operational Muslim army group. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Deliberate killing of arrested persons-POWs. PLACE AND TIME: Gornji Potocari, the commune of Bratunac, June 1992. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Dragan Mitrovic, a retired miner, born in 1929, from the village of Donji Magasic, was heavily disabled and walked with two walking sticks. On 16 June he tended cattle nearby his house when he was approached by Babajic, Ramic and Ibrahimovic from the village of Glogovo and forcibly taken to the Moslem village of Cizmici and closed in the house of Camil Muratovic. He was beaten. On 25 June Mitrovic's sons were on the hill called "Cuka", in the neighborhood of Cizmici, when they heard Moslems calling them, proposing to negotiate on the exchange of Mitrovic. They wanted to see their father first, and they took him out in front of Camil Muratovic's stable. Mitrovic could hardly walk with the help of a stick; he shouted that he was alive and well. In exchange for Mitrovic they demanded 5 tons of flour or 5 boxes of ammunition, which his sons did not have. Then they shouted to them: "Send your mother Jovanka. We have no one to fuck; we'll give you your father back". Mitrovic's sons felt humiliated and asked in despair their friends to kill their father so that Moslems could not torture and humiliate him any more, but they refused. Mitrovic was taken to the prison in Gornji Potocar, where Beslic, the warden, beat him daily; one day he hit his head against the wall, and when he fell kicked him to death with his boots. His body was thrown into the Potocanska reka (a river), and later taken in a truck in an unknown direction. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Hajro Beslic from Bratunac, prison warden in Gornji Potocar, 2. Ejup Golic, former shipper, from the village of Glogovo, 3. Sabrija Babajic, of father Mehmed, from the village of Glogovo, 4. Murat Ramic, of father Osman, from the village of Glogovo, 6. Camil Muratovic, from Cizmici, 7. Refik Babajic, of father Rama, from Glogovo. EVIDENCE: Minutes from the hearing of Mitrovic's son Jovan, filed with the Committee under number 560/94 and the document of the Basic Court in Zvornik Ki. 70/93 filed with the Committee under number 266/1-94. Some of the war crimes that are reported to the UN and listed by the case and proof number. All Bosnian Muslim units were from Srebrenica's operational Muslim army group. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Inhumane treatment of civilians. PLACE AND TIME: Srebrenica, 1992-February 1994. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: The witness, a 70 year old pensioner, lived with his wife in his family house in Srebrenica where he was born. When a great number of Serbs escaped from Srebrenica, where until the war 1/3 of the population had been Serb, the witness believed that was just a phase, and that life would become normal again. In the end only 21 persons of Serb nationality remained in Srebrenica. Life was difficult for Serbs. They were constantly exposed to various forms of abuse, especially by Moslem refugees who threw stones at Serb houses, demolished them, and often plundered them. Moslem military police searched the witness's house twice. The first time they searched his house they took all food he had, as well as medicines and other valuables. The second time, a police patrol consisting of Hajrus and Safet from Voljevica, searched his house and then came back the same day and took away his clothes, his wife's underwear, stockings, hygienic necessities. The two men continued visiting the witness another 6 evenings. They forced their entry every time by breaking the gate. The witness complained to the military police and commander Krdzic told him that he would "take necessary measures". The witness knew about the killing and maltreatment of other Serbs which is why he was afraid to leave his house during the day, so he went out only in the evening, while his wife had to wear long dresses like Moslem women to hide that she was a Serb. The witness finally left Srebrenica assisted by the Red Cross because he fell ill and required a surgery. In Srebrenica he left behind his real estate, a two- storey house (11x8m), a yard and an orchard. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Atif Krdzic from Osmaca, who was a policeman before the war, commander of the military police in Srebrenica, 2. Hakija Mehovic, commander of the military police in Srebrenica, 3. Hidajet Mustafic, from the surroundings of Skelani, member of the military police, 4-5. Safet and Hajrus, both from Voljevica, near Bratunac, members of the military police. EVIDENCE: Minutes from the hearing of the witness of 30 August 1994, filed with the Committee under number 378/94-3. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Inhumane treatment of arrested persons - POWs. PLACE AND TIME: Srebrenica, the prison in the police building, September-October 1992. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: The witness was arrested in his house in the village of Podravanje in an attack of the Moslem army and taken to a prison in Srebrenica. He was placed in a cell (2 x 2.5m) in which there were no beds or covers. In fact, there was no furniture in the cell. They could not lie down, because there were six of them in the cell, and guards kept spilling water on the floor, so that they stood or crouched all the time. The witness and other Serbs were beaten every day. The witness was beaten with boots, as a result of which his ribs were broken. This was done by Koljevic whose boots, as it occurred to the witness, were specially intended for beating, since they were strengthened with pointed boot legs, and the witness often lost consciousness after beating. The beating usually started at 10 p.m., and ended at 4 a.m. The witness was also beaten with electric cables, cords, metal pipes. He particularly had a difficult time when they burnt his hands with cigarettes made of walnut leaves. On one occasion Koljevic ordered him to strip naked, and burnt his penis with a cigarette. The witness lost consciousness. Seven of his teeth were knocked out - five in the upper and two in the lower jaw. Apart from Koljevic, he was also beaten by the guards Kemo, Beli and Dule. Guards often clogged the toilet, so that the witness and other prisoners had to put their hand in the opening. Several times they brought women and children from the town to the cell in which the witness was, and they spat on them and insulted them. They were not allowed to take a bath or to wash their faces ever, and when they asked to go to the toilet, it depended on guards whether they would go or not. If they let them go, they had to go out together, and they were beaten by guards in the corridor. This is why they had to avoid going to the toilet. They usually received food twice a day - leftovers from what guards ate. Occasionally they received tea with no sugar and a piece of bread of the size of a cigarette package. As they were not allowed to wash, sometimes they had to take bread with hands on which there were feces from the cleaning of the toilet. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Mirzet Koljevic, head of the police, 2. Naser Oric, commander of the Moslem army in Srebrenica, who beat the witness so hard that his left eye remained damaged as a result of a blow. 3-6. Guards Kemo from Pale near Sarajevo, Beli and Dule from Osmaca near Srebrenica, Cemo from Suceska. EVIDENCE: Minutes from the hearing of the witness filed with the Committee under number 378/94-1. Some of the war crimes that are reported to the UN and listed by the case and proof number. All Bosnian Muslim units were from Srebrenica's operational Muslim army group. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Deliberate killing and inhuman treatment of the wounded and the sick PLACE AND TIME: Srebrenica, a prison located between the Town Hall and the Courthouse, January - February 1993. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: During a Moslem attack on Serbs in the village of Kusici, the witness, a student of the second year of high school was on holiday when she received a wound in her left hip while feeding the cattle with her mother. After that they were captured by the Moslems and taken away. But, since she was unable to walk on account of the wound, her mother carried her for two kilometers and then she was loaded on an oxen cart, took to Srebrenica and put into the prison between the Town Hall and the Courthouse. She stayed in the prison from January 16 till February 6, 1993. She lay on a stretcher and was completely unable to move. During the above stated period she had her wound dressed only once and was given a few pills. She was not taken to the hospital, which at the time existed in Srebrenica and was providing services. She and other inmates were given food only once a day consisting of a slice of bread and beans soup. The water was supplied in the least possible quantities depending on the mood the guards. They were not provided with any facilities for washing or taking a bath. Men were imprisoned in the adjacent room wherefrom guards' curses and wailing and howling from the inmates being beaten could frequently be heard. Owing to the effects of the inflicted wound and the untimely medical care, she had to spend four months in a hospital after the exchange and her leg remained shorter by 5 cm. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Zulko Turusovic, the prison commander in Srebrenica. EVIDENCE: The minutes from the hearing of the witness of August 30, 1994 filed with the Committee under No. 378/94-5. Some of the war crimes that are reported to the UN and listed by the case and proof number. All Bosnian Muslim units were from Srebrenica's operational Muslim army group. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Deliberate killing of prisoners - prisoners of war. PLACE AND TIME: Gornja Kamenica, a village near Zvornik, 24 August 1992. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: At about 6 a.m. on August 24, 1992, armed Moslem formations attacked the village of Gornja Kamenica. Most of the inhabitants managed to leave the village, but the following persons stayed behind: 1. Ljubomir Tomic 2. Dragomir Tomic, and 3. Milomir Kukolj, of father Veljko, all from Gornja Kamenica. After the arrest, members of the Moslem armed formations tortured and then killed the three mentioned persons. After the liberation of Gornja Kamenica on October 20, 1992, their bodies were found near a stable which belonged to Bo a Tomic. Their bones were broken, including their skulls, which proves that they were killed. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Esad Mehmedovic, former policeman from the village of Besici, the Milici Commune 2. Meho Suljagic, from Kamenica, the Zvornik Commune 3. Saban Redzic, former inspector of the Commune of Zvornik 4. Edo Haskic from Gornja Kamenica 5. Esad Haskic, from Gornja Kamenica 6. Ahmed Grebic, former policeman from Zvornik 7. Hazir Begic, former policeman from Zvornik 8. Esad Salkic 9. Muhamed Selimovic 10. Meho Suljic EVIDENCE: A document of the Basic Court in Zvornik, No. Kri. 71/93, filed with the Committee under No. 266/1-94 and document 378/94-19-23 including testimonies of B.V.,T.M., K.V., T.M. and K.T. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Willful killing and inhuman treatment of wounded and sick persons. PLACE AND TIME: Srebrenica, hospital, between July 24 and 27, 1993. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Halilovic, as soldier of Moslem Armed formations, shot to death a civilian in the hospital. The civilian was Stojan Krsmanovic, nee 1924, from the village of Rekovac, the municipality of Bratunac. Krsmanovic was placed in the hospital after he had been captured and injured by Moslem armed units of Ejup Golic, when he was on his way home from Jelovac to Rekovac, unarmed. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Emir (Safet) Halilovic, barber by profession, from Srebrenica, born in the village of Budak, the municipality of Srebrenica. EVIDENCE: The documentation filed with the Committee under No. 371/94-1 and in the documents of the Basic Public Prosecutor's Office in Zvornik Kt. 9/94, where the records on autopsy performed by the physician of the out-patient health center in Bratunac are also filed. Some of the war crimes that are reported to the UN and listed by the case and proof number. All Bosnian Muslim units were from Srebrenica's operational Muslim army group. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Ethnic cleansing. PLACE AND TIME: Medje, a village near Srebrenica, May - August 1992. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: On May 16, 1992 the commander of a Muslim armed formation, Beketic, came to the Serb village of Medje and, promising to the villagers that nothing would happen to them and that they could go on living and working in peace, he seized all their weapons and came again to the village on July 15, 1992 in the company of armed members of his unit and, on that occasion, killed: 1. Cvijetin Gagic, alias "Mato" , of father Srecko, 2. Velimir Simeunovic, of father Petar, 3. Radojka Simeunovic, of husband Velimir, 4. Milojko Gagic, 5. Milovan Gagic, 6. Ljubica Gagic, of husband Milovan, 7. Milena Gagic, of husband Milan, 8. Danica Gagic, of husband Djordje, 9. Milovan Andric, of father Sava, 10. Mladjen Subotic, of father Simeun, 11. Ilinka Subotic, of husband Milisav, 12. Manojlo Subotic, 13. Milena Subotic, wife of Manojlo, 14. Vidoje Subotic, of father Drago, 15. Andja Gagic, wife of Miladin, 16. Petar Gagic, 17. Petrija Andric, and 18. Radivoje Subotic, all from the village of Medja. Individuals were put behind the bars after they were transported by lorries from Medja to Srebrenica where they were locked up in the rooms of the former territorial defence HQs, subjected to torture and abuse, and then slaughtered; their bodies were exchanged on August 13. At the same time, Serb houses in this village were looted, cattle driven away and the houses and auxiliary buildings owned by the following set alight and destroyed: in the hamlet of Karan: Velimir Simeunovic, Mladjen Subotic, Manojlo Subotic, Vidoje Subotic, Milenko SUbotic, Cvijetin Gagic, Djordje Gagic, Milovan Gagic, Dragan gagic, Milenko Gagic,Petar Gagic, Vojislav Andric and Milovan Andric; in the hamlet of Radacevic: Pera Vasic, Ljeposava Vasic, Stanisa Vasic, Stevan Golic, Bo a Golic, Jova Todorovic, Radisav Gligic, Todor Todorovic, Nedja Jovanovic, Milenko Jovanovic, Milan Jovanovic, Jevdja Jovanovic, Zivko Jovanovic, Cvjetin Jovanovic, Draga Jovanovic, Jova Jovanovic, Dragan Jovanovic and Radoje Vasic; in the hamlet of Valtovic: Zivan Trifunovic, Milenko Trifunovic, Vlada Lukic, Steva Lukic, Mara Lukic, Vinka Lukic, Radisav Lukic, Zivko Lukic and Milan Lukic; in the hamlet of Crni Vrh: Radomir Djuric, Vojislav Djuric, Radivoj Jezdic, Krsta Petrovic, Petar Jovicic and Milka Petrovic. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Members of the Muslim armed formations under the command of Ned ad Bektic, former JNA lieutenant, born at Karadzici, commune of Srebrenica to father Rama and mother Zelja, a Muslim. EVIDENCE: Documentation filed with the Committee for Compiling Data on Crimes against Humanity and International Law under No. 371/94-2 and with the Basic Court at Zvornik under No. Ki.78/94.
srebrenica_man- 72768 - 14.08.2012 : Ratko Obrenovic Detroit, USA - (0)
Ethnic Conflicts in Civil War in Bosnia -Political manipulation with term of Genocide (6)LIST OF THE CAMPS FOR SERBS IN SREBRENICA: (320. SREBRENICA, a prison between the buildings of the Municipality Court and the City Hall 321. SREBRENICA, prison of a police station 322. SREBRENICA, village of Potocari, private prison of Oric Naser 323. SREBRENICA, village of Sceska, Zulfo Tursunovic's private prison Some of the war crimes that are reported to the UN and listed by the case and proof number. All Bosnian Muslim units were from Srebrenica's operational Muslim army group. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Deliberate killing of civilians. PLACE AND TIME: The village of Zeravice and the village of Recice, the municipality of Han Pijesak, August 1993. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: On August 2, 1993, soldiers of Muslim armed formations attacked the Serb villages of Recice and Zeravice. In Recice, there were no victims in the civilian population because the villagers had fled before the soldiers' arrival. The soldiers looted and then burnt seven houses with auxiliary buildings. The burnt houses were owned by Dusan and Milovan Golijan, Tomo and Vasa Golijan, Stevan Golijan and his brothers, Rajko Vaskovic, Svetozar Golijan and Milorad Golijan. Muslim soldiers attacked Zeravice the same day and killed: 1. Dobrivoje Golijan, born on April 6, 1926, resident of Zeravice, 2. Rajka Todorovic, born in 1958, who had been mentally ill, 3. Aleksa Golijan, born in 1923, 4. Danica Sokanovic, born in 1926, 5. Milovan Golijan, born in 1967, 6. Marko Mirovic, born in 1923, 7. Jovan Sokanovic, born in 1931, 8. Zora Sokanovic, born in 1936, wife of Jovan Sokanovic. During the attack, Dana Sokanovic, a primary school pupil, sustained a wound in the arm, after which she was captured and taken by Muslim soldiers to Kladanj, together with Golijan Velimir, born in 1946 and Milojka Mirovic, born in 1926. When they occupied the village, the Muslim soldiers plundered and burnt down more than 70 Serb-owned houses and their auxiliary buildings and took away some 200 heads of cattle. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Brajko Huseinovic, of father Hamid, m. Ajsa - maiden name Doljancic, born on October 7, 1959 in Rubnici, the municipality of Han Pijesak, tradesman by profession, employed in TP "Napredak" before the war, permanent residence in Rubinici, the municipality of Han Pijesak, 2. Rifet Vrabac, called "Bekan", of father Djulbeg, m. Sema - maiden name Bubic, born on December 1, 1961, in Nevacka, the municipality of Han Pijesak, timber dispatcher by profession, employed in SIP "Planinsko", Han Pijesak, before the war, permanent residence in Nevacka, the municipality of Han Pijesak, 3. Rizvo Vrabac, of father Sahbaz, born on November 10, 1953, in Nevacka, the municipality of Han Pijesak, driver by profession, employed in SIP "Planinsko", Han Pijesak, permanent residence in Nevacka, 4. Becir Makanic, of father Jakub, m. Cura, born on April 15, 1957, machine technician by profession, permanent residence in Vlasenica, commander of 1st Muslim detachment of Cer, 5. Ismet Vrabac, called "Redzo", of father Djulbeg, m. Sema - maiden name Bubic, born on September 1, 1963 in Nevacka, the municipality of Han Pijesak, worker by profession, employed in SIP "Planinsko", Han Pijesak, before the war, permanent residence in Nevacka, 6. Muhamed Vrabac, of father Mujo, born on February 10, 1939, in Nevacka, the municipality of Han Pijesak, employed in PTT, Han Pijesak, before the war, permanent residence in Nevacka, 7. Resid Imanovic, of father Bajra, born on July 13, 1955 in Nevacka, the municipality of Han Pijesak, locksmith by profession, employed in SIP "Planinsko", Han Pijesak, before the war, permanent residence in Nevacka, reserve JNA officer before the war, 8. Zaim Avdagic, of father Himzo, born on May 28, 1946, in Turalici, the municipality of Vlasenica, carpenter by profession, employed in SIP "Planinsko", Han Pijesak, before the war, permanent residence in Nevacka, the municipality of Han Pijesak, 9. Zijad Avdagic, of father Himzo, born in 1962 in Turalici, the municipality of Vlasenica, worker by profession, employed in DP "Stupcanica", Olovo, permanent residence in Nevacka, the municipality of Han Pijesak, 10. Galib Durakovic, of father Osman, m. Mevla - maiden name Sanderovic, born on August 12, 1945 in Sasevci, the municipality of Olovo, coachman by profession, employed in SIP "Planinsko", Han Pijesak, before the war, permanent residence in Nevacka, the municipality of Han Pijesak, 11. Hajrudin Glasic, of father Began, born on January 5, 1953 in Rubinici, the municipality of Han Pijesak, worker by profession, employed in SIP "Planinsko", Han Pijesak, before the war, permanent residence in Rubinici, 12. Semso Harderbasic, of father Hamid, born on January 24, 1939 in Nevacka, worker by profession, employed in DP "Stupcanica", Olovo, before the war, permanent residence in Nevacka, the municipality of Han Pijesak, 13. Ramiz Camdzic, born in 1938 in Podglavica, the municipality of Kladanj, butcher by profession, permanent residence in Podglavica, the municipality of Kladanj, 14. Alija Mutapcic, born in 1957, in Vlasenica, worker by profession,permanent residence in Vlasenica, the "Bacino Brdo" settlement. EVIDENCE: Records on investigation on the spot, with photo- documentation, medical findings, testimonies by witnesses filed with the Committee under No. 136/95-2. Some of the war crimes that are reported to the UN and listed by the case and proof number. All Bosnian Muslim units were from Srebrenica's operational Muslim army group. Some of the war crimes that are reported to the UN and listed by the case and proof number. All Bosnian Muslim units were from Srebrenica's operational Muslim army group. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Deliberate killing of civilians. PLACE AND TIME: The village of Potocani, end of May and beginning of June, 1992. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: At the end of May, 1992, most probably on 25 or 26 May, in the village of Potocani, Muslim soldiers in "Green Beret" uniforms, under command of Semin Rustanpasic, killed the following Serbs: 1. Draga Cavic, of father Nedeljko, born in 1933, 2. Milenko Lukic. At the beginning of June, the following persons were also killed in this village: 3. Ljubo Cavic, of father Ljubo, born in 1911, and his wife, 4. Bosa Cavic, of father Aleksa, born in 1924 - slaughtered in front of their house. A big cross was cut into Ljuba's chest. Bosa's throat was cut, both her breasts were cut off, her eyes were gouged out and her ears cut off. Both her arms were cut to the elbows. 5. Jelena Jovic, of father Milan, born in 1928. Her nose, ears and arms were cut off and her eyes were gouged. 6. Mara, from Kupres by birth, was slaughtered. 7. Radojka Prgomelja, of father Stanoje, born in 1944. Her right leg and nose were cut off, her eyes were gouged out and she was cut all over the body. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Semin Rustanpasic, commander of the "Green Berets" unit, 2. Senad Bajric, 3-6. Eric, Corina, Rizvan and Durakovic, "Green Berets" soldiers. EVIDENCE: Testimony by the witness 234/95-13. Some of the war crimes that are reported to the UN and listed by the case and proof number. All Bosnian Muslim units were from Srebrenica's operational Muslim army group. On October 5, 1992, Moslem armed formations attacked the house of Sreten Djokic in the village of Divovici near Bratunac, and two days later the bodies of the people killed in Divovici were handed over to the Serbs. The body of Sreten Djokic was given without the head and the right arm. On the neck hung a patch of skin with hair from the top of his head. The head and the arm have not been found and the body was buried accordingly. Proof: 37/94-6. In an attack on the Serb village of Brezani, the commune of Srebrenica, on June 30, 1992, members of Moslem armed forces killed 19 serb villagers. The body of Milos Novakovic from the hamlet of Cicevac was found with the head cut off. Proof: 493/94-9, 493/94-5, 493/94-6, 493/94-7, 493/94-8 and 635/94-9. Slavko Mladjenovic, (father Ljubomir), born in 1965, was killed on August 8, 1992 during an attack on the village of Jezestice, the commune of Bratunac. He was buried without the head which had been cut off and taken away. Proof: 68/94 and 635/94-28. Some of the war crimes that are reported to the UN and listed by the case and proof number. All Bosnian Muslim units were from Srebrenica's operational Muslim army group. In clashes between Moslem armed forces and those of the Army of the Republic of Srpska on November 5,1992 in the area of Kamenica, the commune of Zvornik, the Moslems captured and killed by beheading Vlado Grabovica, Savo Djokic, Dragomir Bozic, Slavko Tijanic, Savo Kazanovic and Radomir Pavlovic. Dragomir Bozic was massacred his head severed from the body. The head of Slavko Tijanic was found without the eyes, ears and nose, a 6 mm diameter iron bar was found in his chest, while his neck, hands and feet were tied with wire. The head of Savo Kazanovic had also been cut off, his chest pierced with a large nail, and he himself nailed to an oak tree and crucified. A head without the body was also found which is assumed to have belonged to Milos Grabovica. The following were also killed in Kamenica on November 5,1992: Miladin Asceric, 28; Mico Tesic, 24, and Nikola Milinovic, 27. They were also beheaded. Proof: 184/94-5, 184/95-6, 184/95-7 and 184/95-8. Some of the war crimes that are reported to the UN and listed by the case and proof number. All Bosnian Muslim units were from Srebrenica's operational Muslim army group. In an attack carried out on June 3,1992 on the village of Brezane, the commune of Srebrenica, Moslems killed Milivoje Mitrovic and Stanoje Mitrovic. When this village was liberated in April 1993 their headless bodies were found. Stanoje Mitrovic's throat had been slit by one "Kemo" from Pale. Proof: 635/94-9. The Moslems killed the Serb Sredoje Jovanovic from Krnice by beheading him when they attacked this village on July 5, 1992. Proof: 493/94-13. On September 24,1992 Moslem forces occupied the village of Podravanje in the commune of Milici, set it to fire, looted it and killed all the wounded they came across in the village. They killed 19 persons on that occasion and massacred their bodies. Zulfo Tursumovic from Suceska had the severely wounded Tomislav Perendic put his head in his (Tursumovic's) lap and then slaughtered him and cut his head off. Svetozar Jovanovic's head was cut off and impaled on a stake and Gojko Tomic was beheaded and his head thrown some 20 metres away from the body. Proof: 184/95-34. 33. REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL PURSUANT TO SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1019 (1995) ON VIOLATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW IN THE AREAS OF SREBRENICA, ZEPA, BANJA LUKA AND SANSKI MOST UNITED NATIONS Security Council Distr. GENERAL S/1995/988 27 November 1995 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH 95-37227 (E) 281195/... *9537227* A. Missing persons 4. The Bosnian Serb offensive on Srebrenica from 6 to 11 July 1995 led to a mass displacement of the entire Bosnian Muslim community of the area. An estimated 25,000 people were forcibly evacuated on a convoy of buses and trucks organized by the Bosnian Serb authorities. A group of people, estimated at between 10,000 and 15,000, most of whom were men, left Srebrenica on foot. The exact number of persons from these two groups who arrived safely in Bosnian Government-held territory is not known. By most accounts, the local population prior to the Bosnian Serb offensive numbered 38,000 to 40,000, although UNHCR estimated the population of the enclave for food distribution purposes at 42,600. 5. Thousands of people still remain unaccounted for. An unknown number who made their way to safety have simply not been registered by the appropriate authorities. At least several hundred persons are believed to have been killed in armed combat. There are also accounts of men in hiding in Bosnian Serb-held territory, although no more than a few hundred men are believed to be still at large. 6. It is thus difficult to ascertain the exact numbers of those missing. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) has received over 10,000 tracing requests from families and has determined that 2,000 of the requests are duplicative, leaving a total of 8,000 tracing requests. A further analysis by ICRC indicates that 5,000 of the tracing requests concern individuals who are said to have left the enclave before it was taken by Bosnian Serb forces. Some 3,000 requests concern persons who were taken from their families by Bosnian Serb forces during the expulsion itself. 34.Faxsimil of document of Bosnian Muslim Army (BMA) 1.Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina ARMY OF R. BiH Defense of Republic The 285.East Bosnian Brigade Zepa Top secret No.08-20-454/95 Date: 19.04.1995. State security Defense of Republic military secret - Top confidential HEADQUARTER OF ARMY DIRECTION FOR TACTICAL HEAD OF DEPARTMENT Asim Dzambasovic Connection with your act, top secret No: 2/628 from 18.04.1995 Requested information we submitting to you: We are submitting you data of military equipment, which arrived;
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