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serbian_krajina - 68363 - 07.04.2012 : Serbian Government Beograd - best (0)

Dossier Serbian Krajina: A country without people


In the period 1945-1991 the position of Krajina Serbs in the federal Croatia was only at the beginning in accordance with the proclaimed principles established in Topusko. The aspirations of Croats to have their own and ethnically pure state (without Serbs) were only temporarily suppressed by the fall of NDH in the World War Two. These tendencies, however, were revived again by the beginning of the seventies in order to reach their peak in the year 1971 in the form the so-called Maspok (or Mass Movement). At that time the Croat political leaders swimming down the stream of Croat nationalism, under the influence of immigration and revival of neo-Ustashis, made a demand for an independent state of Croatia. This attempt was a failure, but in the new federal Constitution of the year 1974 and republican constitutions of the year 1976, political assumptions were given for the secession of Croatia from Yugoslavia. At the same time, this marked the beginning of new persecution and exodus of Krajina Serbs, but only the appropriate moment was awaited for the decisive pressure to be made. When Tito died in 1980, the road was open for this to be brought into life. At the head of the movement for secession of Croatia from Yugoslavia - the Croat Democratic Community (HDZ) - came the retired General Franjo Tudjman, a Croat nationalist of conviction. He was creating political prerequisites, with the nationalists in Croatia and those abroad - the descendants of the Ustashi movement, for the achievement of secessionist aims and chauvinist anti-Serbian targets. Tudjman made also political and other preparations for such an action, he asked for and obtained support from abroad, most of all the support of Germany and of Vatican, therefore, those same centers which at the time have helped Ante Pavelic create his monstrous, genocidal and Fascist NDH in 1941. Franjo Tudjman who is now proclaimed "father of the Croat nation", was building his program of the new Croat state on the nationalistic and chauvinistic traditions of the "first father of the nation" Ante Starcevic and his successor Josip Frank. It is the question here of the rascist concept of the ethnically "clean Croat state". Ante Starcevic was basing his political concept on the slogan that "Croatia belongs to Croats only", that "in Croat lands (including Serbian Krajina) only one people is a political one - the Croat people", that in Croatia "Serbs are not recognized as people". Similar to the Fascist ideology, the idea was also based on the racist, national and religious superiority of Croats over Serbs. In a word, Serbs are nothing, while Croats are a superior race and thus, Croat people can not renew its national state without previously exterminating or expelling the Serbian people. Such insane ideas have served as basis for the formation of Tudjman's program for the creation of "the independent democratic Croatia", whose realization has started by the end of the eighties. The said ideas have found their place in the program of the HDZ the ruling political party of the Croat Democratic Community, headed by Franjo Tudjman. By accepting the symbols of the one-time Ustashi state, Franjo Tudjman, the undisputed leader of the HDZ, says for the Pavelic's NDH even before the secession of Croatia, that it was not a bare "Quisling concoction and a Fascist crime, but an expression of historical strives of Croat people to obtain its own independent state and recognition by the international factors". In this way Franjo Tudjman obviously is trying to establish a continuity between the NDH and the present-day Croatia and with this fact justify all the crimes, ethnic cleansing and extermination of Serbs which, unfortunately, did happen in the civil war of 1991-1995, just as it did in 1941.


Guided by the historical remembrances, educated by the previous terrible experiences and directly faced with a neo-Ustashi and Fascist ideology at work, Serbs in Serbian Krajina at the beginning of nineties decided to fight for survival on the soil and in the land in which they have been living for centuries. Defending themselves from the new and probably even more atrocious genocide and ethnic cleansing after the secession of Croatia from Yugoslavia, Serbs offered resistance and formed their own state - the Republic of Serbian Krajina with the capital in Knin and the areas in which the Serbian people is living. This was an understandable reaction, under the given circumstances, because by the decisions of the Croat authorities, all the achievements of the anti-Fascist Serbian struggle in the period 1941-1945 have been abolished: after having been deleted from the new Croat constitution as a constituent people, Serbs were transformed into a minority. Starting from the right of Serbian people to self-determination, Serbs in the Republic of Serbian Krajina have, after the secession of Croatia, adopted their own Constitution, formed their own Assembly, Government and judiciary as well as other state institutions. Republic of Croatia under Franjo Tudjman openly strived at any cost to subjugate the Republic of Serbian Krajina and did not abstain from violating international agreements, such as the Vance's plan. This plan was guaranteeing Serbs in Serbian Krajina the protection of the United Nations and was making possible negotiations with the Croat state, without prejudice to the final political solution. Authorities of the Krajina Serbs in Knin, with the support of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, persistently were striving to reach with the Republic of Croatia, through the mediation of the international community, a reasonable and mutually acceptable political agreement. Krajina Serbs and their representatives, of course, did not have any illusion as to what are the final aims of the new Croat state. And they were: expulsion of Serbs from their centuries long hearths or their subjugation (Nolens, volens).


International mediators have offered their plan which would secure for the Serbs in Serbian Krajina an incomplete political (without Constitution, army and foreign policy) and complete cultural autonomy, but all this within the framework of "the internationally recognized borders of the Republic of Croatia". According to this plan economic, cultural and other links of Serbs in Serbian Krajina with Serbs in the motherland would be allowed and in the other Serbian countries, and in international organizations. Serbs in Serbian Krajina would have their own coat-of-arms and their flag, their language and alphabet "Cyrillic", their radio-television, police force, their own currency and their president. Krajina government would conduct independent fiscal policy, and the corresponding Krajina legislative bodies would pass laws and there would be a judicial power with first-instance and appellate courts of law. Serbs in Serbian Krajina would take part in election of the central government in Zagreb, of the Croat parliament (Sabor) and the Croat president. One of the renown and reputable Serbian intellectuals who did not refuse political agreement between Serbs and the Croat state, otherwise the president of the Serbian Independent Party, Milorad Pupovac, is of opinion that it is a question of the political autonomy which is having roots in the status which Serbian Krajina already had in the past, when it was Military Krajina, with the difference that now it would not be linked directly with Vienna but with Zagreb.


Krajina authorities in Knin were divided in the views as to how they should react to the constat military threats and political pressures from the Republic of Croatia, for the Republic of Serbian Krajina to accept the so-called "peaceful re-integration into the Croat state", and to the attempts by the international community to mediate in finding political solution within the plan Z-4. One line was against negotiations, saying that it was only a play and introduction to total subjugation of the Republic of Serbian Krajina to the new Croat authorities. Thus, it was persistent in refusing the plan Z-4 which also included the military resistance if the Republic of Croatia should try a re-integration by force. This line counted on the support of the opposition in Belgrade. Yugoslav authorities have in principle supported the Z-4 plan. The second and more realistic and pragmatic line in Knin - as well as the government in Serbia - was of opinion that there should be negotiations with the Republic of Croatia. The basis for negotiations in the first phase was the Zagreb agreement between the Krajina Serbs and Croat authorities on the economic issues, as well as the opening of the Zagreb-Belgrade highway, of the oil pipeline and the railway line Zagreb-Split via Knin. This political line of negotiation was supported also by the former Krajina prime minister, a renown businessman Borislav Mikelic, who had in this a clear support of Belgrade, i. e. of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. After the end of war of 1991/1992 by the arrival of the United Nations peace forces in Croatia and Bosnia, it had decided in favor of solving the Serbian issue, i. e. the position of Serbs on the other side of Drina River, by political means and with the mediation of the international community, thus, only through negotiations. Such an approach was only formally suitable for the Croat leaders to the extent to which it was making an illusion for the local and international public on the alleged good intentions of the new Croat state.

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